Abstract: (The Purpose of this paper is to give an introduction to Pure earth Foundation recently formed and registered as a Charitable Society to purify the earth in all aspects . The Mother earth is made impure over the last few centuries resulting an impure air, Water and Environment. There is concern now for Global warming and Climate change threatening existence of the very mankind , which has created it. The Cosmos is infinite and was created by a big bang about 13.7 billion years back which is ever expanding perhaps with infinite dimension. Out of billions of galaxies, Stars , Planets and other Terrestrial bodies Earth which was created about 4.6 billion years back from Sun, is the only terrestrial object known to have life. The excessive concentration of Green House gases particularly the Carbon Dioxide in Earth’s atmosphere, mainly spread over 50 kilometers above ground is causing Global warming and Climate change is increasing over the decades since 1850. There is floods, droughts, Heat waves, Cyclones with high intensity and frequency as a result making Earth inhabitable. The paper discusses in simple language the basic problems for the understanding by youngsters particularly the causes and effects.)
– Pure Earth Foundation is formed by a group of lovers of Environment and Nature who are genuinely concerned with the Deteriorating Environment, Biodiversity, Global warming, Climate Change and increasing Pollution of Air, water, Soil etc resulting in a lurking danger to existence of Mankind. In the process of prolonged discussions with like minded people consisting of Retired Employees, Technologists and Entrepreneurs and member of Civil Society a decision was taken to form a Charitable Society with the basic objective of Preservation of Forests, Environment and Watersheds etc and all matters incidental there to . A meeting of the Founding Members was held in JNAFAU Hyderabad campus on 6 th May 2018, where in 20 members attended the meeting . They approved the Memorandum and byelaws of the Society after detailed discussions. The founding members were eminent personalities from Geospatial Technologies, Retired Employees from All India Services and Central Services and Bankers , Entrepreneurs etc with a common commitment to Save the Planet from Human Extinction.
We have seen recently a tremendous concern all over the World to save the Planet by arresting Global warming and Climate Change and connected issues. Many queries are raised by friends, well-wishers and enthusiasts why this Pure Earth Foundation is formed and what are the objectives . We owe a reply that is very basic and understandable by students and common man .The name Pure Earth itself explains the purpose of this Foundation and speaks the necessity of an Earth without any impurity in Air, Water, Soil and Environment which are necessary to halt Global warming and Climate Change . Already there is Global Concern to avert a catastrophe of sudden Global warming. Never the less the purpose of this paper is to educate many young enthusiasts who have shown keen interest in the matter and are willing to join us in the Noble cause of Saving the Planet and Mankind from the lurking danger.
– The Cosmos was the name coined by Pythagoras in 6th century BC for the Universe. The Universe as per Edwin (1929) is an ever expanding entity created by a Big bang of a huge mass from a Central point in the Universe about 13.7 Billion years back. The Cosmos has Billions of Galaxies, each consisting of Billions Celestial bodies including Black Holes, Novas, Supernovas, Stars, Dwarf stars, White Stars, Planets , Satellites etc. The farthest galaxies are moving at a greater speed than the nearer ones the speed being proportional to distance. The size of the expanding Universe is unknown . Our galaxy The Milky Way has several satellite galaxies LIKE Sagittarius Dwarf Galaxy. It is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which is a component of the Virgo Super cluster, which again is a component of the Laniakea Super cluster. Solar System is inside Milky way Galaxy which is a Spiral galaxy with about 100 to 400 billion Stars . Only two galaxies are seen by naked eye which are our own galaxy the milky way and Andromeda galaxy. The Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest galaxy to our own is 2.36 million light years .The Distance to Proxima Centauri, the nearest star is about 4.23 light years. Everything whether animate or inanimate including Celestial bodies have a birth and death. Small stars like our sun burn out and become Dwarf stars and later White stars. The Universe is violent and Dynamic and shows cannibalism the bigger objects swallowing smaller ones. Our planet Earth is thus a very tiny particle in the Universe which is huge in size not yet known.
Our Solar System and Earth-We are well acquainted with our solar system and our mother earth is estimated as 4.6 billion years old originated from Sun. The Earth is the only astronomical object known in the Universe to contain any forms of life. The Moon is formed 4.4 billion years ago from the Earth perhaps by a hit of an object with the earth . Life in rudimentary form has started on the earth nearly 3.5 billion years back. Life slowly changed to more complex life forms culminating in present human life. The Earth is third planet from the sun, Fifth largest planet in the solar system. It has an average temperature of 140 C. Equatorial diameter 12,756 kilometers & Polar diameter 12,720 km, tilted 66 degrees to plane. The Density of earth is 5.6 grams/ccm and Mass is 6.6 sextillion ton (5.9722 x 1024 grams). The Surface area of Earth is 509 million sq km. It has a thin crust 5 TO 8 Kms with slow moving plates beneath. Asteroid 1950 DA may hit the earth on 16th March 2880 causing huge devastation.(<1% chance).
– The earth atmosphere can be divided into Troposphere (up to 10 Miles), Stratosphere (20 miles thick above Troposphere), Mesosphere (20 miles thick above Stratosphere), Thermosphere ( 350 miles thick above Mesosphere) and Exosphere (39,600 miles thick above Thermosphere). TROPOSPHERE (8 Kms TO 16 Kms equator to pole)contains up to 75% of the mass of the atmosphere and contain life forms.. Nearly all Atmospheric water vapor or moisture is found in the Troposphere. The Troposphere is the layer where most of the world’s weather variation takes place. The STRATOSPHERE contains 24 percent of mass of the atmosphere and occupies height from about 12 to 50 km. It Contains Ozone layer and long flights move here for stability. Thus 99 percent of the atmospheric mass is in 50 kms thickness above earth surface. Other layers (Mesosphere, Thermosphere and Ionosphere) are not much affected by Climate Change. Shooting stars burn in Mesosphere which is very cold and contain few molecules. The Thermosphere has fewer molecules with large temperature variation and Exosphere has occasional molecules escaping into space. The space above Mesosphere is also called Ionosphere.
The Total mean mass of the atmosphere is 5148×1012 tones and total weight of Carbon Dioxide is 2.996×1012 tons. Moore, et al. report a mass of about 7 x 1011 tons of carbon in the atmosphere as CO2 and about 4.5 x 1011 tons of carbon in vegetation as carbohydrate. As per US Global Change Research Information Office , World has 750 Gigaton carbon (GtC) in Atmosphere, 610 GtC in Forests, 1580 GtC in Soil ,1020 GtC in Surface ocean, 38100 GtC in Deep ocean, 4,000 GtC in Coal, 500 GtC in Oil, 500 GtC in Natural gas etc. It is the deposition of more carbon in the atmosphere of earth that is the main cause of Global warming and Climate Change on the Earth. Few thousand years back the earth had only Forests and water in Solid and Liquid form on earth surface. With increase of population the forest cover has drastically reduced to less than 30 percent of our land surface coupled with burning of Fossil Fuel resulting in Carbon imbalance. The year wise Carbon emissions to Atmosphere are increasing at a rapid pace . It was 8.37 billion metric tonnes (Gtc) in 2006, 8.57 billion metric tonnes (GtC) in 2007, 8.77 billion metric tonnes (GtC) in 2008, 8.74 billion metric tonnes (GtC) in 2009, 9.19 billion metric tonnes (GtC) in 2010 , 9.47 billion metric tonnes (GtC) in 2011, 9.7 billion metric tonnes (GtC) in 2012, 9.9 billion metric tonnes (GtC) in 2013, as per Global carbon budget.org.
Weather and Climate
-There is a difference between Weather and Climate . CLIMATE is the average weather for a particular region and time period, usually taken over 30-years. It is Average of Precipitation, Temperature, Humidity, Sunshine, Wind velocity, Phenomena such as Fog, Frost, Hail storms, and other measures of the weather that occur over a long period in a particular place. OUR CLIMATE historically has always Changed. But it changed for the better till 1850 AD and has started changing precariously after that threatening human life. Global warming and Climate change are closely interlinked. Global warming is gradual warming of the earth including atmosphere and Sea mostly due to Green House Gases (GHGs) . Climate change is an effect almost of the same causes as Global warming(mostly anthropogenic/manmade) as per IPCC. Extreme weather includes Heat waves (>400 CELSIUS), Droughts (< 10 % DEFICIENT), Wildfires , Extreme Rainfall ,Winter Precipitation, Hurricanes, Tornadoes and Floods etc. THERE IS EXTREMITY IN FREQUENCY , INTENSITY, DURATION AND TIME ABNORMALITIES which are happening due to Climate Change. IN Mumbai 944 mm rain on 26th July 2005 (within 24 hours) paralyzed the city. In Chennai More than 500 people were killed and over 18 lakh (1.8 million) people were displaced in Dec 2015 by torrential rain. With estimates of damages and losses ranging from nearly ₹200 billion (US$3 billion) to over ₹1 trillion (US$15 billion), the floods were the costliest to have occurred in 2015. The KARACHI HEAT WAVE in JUNE last week in 2015 during Ramzan left 1200 dead with temperature hovering around 48 degree centigrade for few days. These are few examples of Extremity due to climate Change.
The Causes and Effects
– Basically it is the Greenhouse gases (abbrev. GHG) whose increase in post Industrial revolution era beyond 1850 AD is responsible for the Global warming and Climate Change. They are gases in the atmosphere that absorb and emits radiation within the thermal infrared range. This process is the fundamental cause of the green house effect. The primary greenhouse gases in Earth’s atmosphere are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and Halocarbons (a group of gases containing fluorine, chlorine and bromine) and Others (Fluorinated gas or F- gas, Black carbon, Ozone etc) . It is a fact that GHGs are required for us as without greenhouse gases, the average temperature of Earth’s surface would be about −18 °C (0 °F). The carbon dioxide alone contributes 74 percent to Global warming followed by 14 percent by methane and 8 percent by Nitrous oxide.
Historically the carbon Dioxide concentration has remained 180 to 290 PPM in the World from last 400 thousand years till 1880. However it started increasing with Industrial Revolution in Nineteenth Century.The 2013 carbon dioxide emissions (fossil fuel and cement production only) breakdown is coal (43%), oil (33%), gas (18%), cement (5.5%) and gas flaring (0.6%). land use change 8% etc as per global Carbon Project.org 2014. CO2 concentration in air till 1880 was about 300 ppm and today it is 409 ppm in 2018. There is increase of nearly 3 ppm per year now which is going up year after year. An increase of 100 ppm has given a Temperature rise of nearly 0.85 degree centigrade and if there is a limit of 2 degree rise fixed by UNFFCC , IPCC and COP meetings, we have to keep the concentration below 500 ppm only. This is the challenge as we have to convince one and all thereby putting pressure on the Governments world over.
. The planet is warming, from North Pole to South Pole, and everywhere in between. Globally, the mercury is already up more than 1 degree Fahrenheit (0.85 degree Celsius), and even more in sensitive polar regions. The heat is melting glaciers and sea ice. It’s also shifting precipitation patterns and setting animals on the move.. On set of El Niño and La Niña events in Sea is happening resulting irregular precipitation. Ice is melting worldwide, especially at the Earth’s poles. Today, permanent ice covers a little less than 10 percent of Earth’s land surface. They contains almost 87 percent of its fresh water. The majority of the ice, 29 × 10 6 cubic kilometers, is in Antarctica. The Greenland Ice Sheet holds 2.95 × 10 6 cubic kilometers of ice, Glaciers and ice caps amount to about 0.18 × 10 6 cubic kilometers. Although glaciers and ice caps make up less than 1 percent of Earth’s terrestrial ice volume, their small size allows them to respond rapidly to climate change. This includes mountain glaciers, ice sheets covering West Antarctica and Greenland, and Arctic sea ice. Glaciologists conclude that worldwide, glaciers are retreating rapidly as climate warms. Glaciers of Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), are predicted to be gone by 2020. Ice first started to accumulate on that mountain nearly 12,000 years ago. Alaskan glaciers are thinning rapidly and contributing as much as 0.14 millimeters (0.005 inches) per year to sea level. The increasing sea level gradually in decades will submerge parts of countries like Bangladesh and cities like MUMBAI & CHENNAI to mention a few. The Development is not Sustainable and Carbon Neutral. There has to be Mitigation and Adaptations both together urgently. There are Global Efforts and National Efforts in place not able to stall the gradual accelerating increase in Carbon Dioxide content in atmosphere .
Other Pollutions-The situation of Air, Water and Soil pollution on earth surface is in critical stage. We can avoid Bad water but not ordinarily the bad air which we breathe 23,000 times a day. The 5 materials used in Air Quality Index (AQI) are Ozone, Fine particulate matter, Sulphur Dioxide, Nitrogen dioxide and Carbon monoxide and their excess cause bad air and bad AQI. Unfortunately many Northern cities in UP and Bihar have worst Air Quality sometimes above 250. The PM’s constituency of Banaras is terribly bad with AQI of over 200 . Swatch bharat must include in practice the Air Purity for good health of the poor.
Water pollution is a result of Soil Pollution and linked to unscientific Waste Disposal. In Hyderabad city there is no drinkable water underground and our famous lake of Husain sagar once used by Kutab sahi kings is a poisonous mass of water with no Aquatic life in it. The water are beyond permissible limits of Dissolved oxygen, BOD, Conductivity , Acidity , Alkalinity , Bacteria, harmful elements etc. In many places worldwide there is water scarcity the latest example is Cape Town , South Africa and many Indian cities are no exceptions. Water has to be recycled and reused to avoid its scarcity as ground water and surface water both are fast depleting. The other important Pollutant is the non degradable plastic causing concern . It is polluting sea, soil and water underground devastating Marine and Terrestrial life
The carbon Source and Sinks
– The Forests of the World and natural India are first vanishing which is the Principal Carbon Sink after the Ocean. The Ocean is fixed and absorbs 24 percent of the C02 emitted. Though China (28%) and USA (15%) and India (7%) are the principal pollutants now, the common sea, atmosphere and Forests are the Sink for the CO2. There are Global and National efforts to counter the Climate Change which will be discussed in another article by the author.
– The purpose of this paper is not to discuss in detail what steps the Pure earth Foundation shall take up to thwart the Global Warming and Climate Change and remove all forms of Impurities while helping the poor and needy and related issues incidental there to. It shall be decided by the learned members of the Foundation by deliberations. The purpose is here to highlight the dangers faced by mankind and create an urge to act suitably by an introductory article. The threats are many due to Global warming including loss of Bio Diversity, Water Scarcity, Air , Water and Soil Pollution, Migrating Wild Life, Drought, Floods, Famine, Poverty, Death of the Poor, Lower crop yield, higher cost of Adaptations to mention a few. It is the poor and poor in poor countries who is the Worst sufferer. The reason is excess GHGs mostly Carbon Dioxide released to atmosphere and Carbon Sink like Forest first depleting.
The mankind will end one day by a sudden Nuclear War or a sudden Global Warming predicted Stephen Hawkins, the British Cosmologists. There are reports that the Earth may be warmer by a minimum of 5 degrees if present trend continues by 2100. There are reports of possibility of a sudden temperature rise because of gradual extinction of Ice in polar regions. We discuss in seminars and workshops and write articles. But ALL WORKSHOPS ARE SATANIC WASTE OF TIME UNLESS FOLLOWED UP BY ACTIONS (MK GANDHI). The science is sobering but unable to control human greed . Though we are different Nations we have a Common atmosphere and common interest to save the planet. The Global temperature in 2016 was among the hottest since records began in 1880. We can’t afford to make any mistake: without concerted action, the very future of our planet is in peril. (NOAA). LET US WAKE UP AND ACT TOGETHER FOR SURVIVAL OF THE MANKIND.